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Air Gap

An air-gapped backup is a copy of an organization's data that is offline and inaccessible through the network. Making it impossible for the backup data to be accessed and hacked or corrupted.

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Antivirus

A program designed to protect the system against viruses and malware.

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What is antivirus software?

Attack Vector

The method used by a hacker to access a network or computer

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Attack Vector

Authenticator

A method for users to prove their identity to a system. It can be a password, multifactor authentication, fingerprint, or facial recognition.

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Authenticator

Black Hat Hacker

A hacker, who exploits vulnerabilities for personal gain.

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BlackCat

Also know as ALPHV is a ransomware-as-a-service ransomware that was first seen at the end of 2021.

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Blacklist

Term to describe a list containing disallowed items such as passwords, spam emails, websites, applications, etc. Whitelist, the opposite of Blacklist, contains everything that is allowed.

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Whitelisting vs Blacklisting

BlackMatter

A resurrected version of the DarkSide ransomware group.

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Blue Team

A team that assesses network security and identifies possible vulnerabilities

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Bot

Computer program that operates as an agent for a user to simulate human activity.

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Bot

Breach

An incident in which computer data, systems, or networks are accessed or affected in an unauthorized way.

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Bring Your Own Device

A company's strategy or policy that allows employees to use their own personal computers, cell phone devices for work purposes.

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What is BYOD?

Brute Force Attack

A method used to obtain privileged information

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Brute Force Attack

Business Email Compromise

Email scam targeting a business.

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What is BEC?

Catfishing

An online scam where a person pretends to be someone else on the internet. People create fake profiles on social media or dating apps and other platforms.

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Catfishing

Chopper

A downloader for other malware. It launches the destructive program.

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Chopper

Clop Ransomware

Part of the Cryptomix ransomware family is a file-encrypting virus that infects an unprotected system and encrypts the computers files by planting the. Clop extension.

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Closed Source

Computer programs whose source code is not published except to licensees. It is available to be edited only by the individual or company that developed it and can be used by those licensed to use the software.

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Cloud Access Security Broker

Software or hardware that is used to protect against cloud security risks

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Cloud Access Security Broker

Cloud or Cloud Computing

On-demand access, via the internet, to computing resources

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What is Cloud Computing?

Cracker

An outdated term used to describe someone who broke into computer systems

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Crypto-Jacking

To use people's devices without their consent or knowledge, to secretly mine cryptocurrency

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Cryptojacking

Cyber

Of or relating to computers, typically used in technology with the combining form cyber-, as cyberterrorism, cyberwarfare, or cyberattack.

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Cyber Incident

Unauthorized use of systems without the system owner's permission

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Cyber Incidents

Cyber Kill Chain

In a cyber-attack, it identifies vulnerabilities and helps the security team to stop the attacks.

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Cyberattack

A malicious attempt to damage, disrupt or gain unauthorized access to computer systems, networks, or devices, via cyber means.

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Cyber Attack

Cybersecurity

The protection of systems, devices, services, and networks, as well as the information on them from theft or damage.

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Cybersecurity

DarkSide

A cybercriminal hacking group believed to be based in Eastern Europe

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Data Aggregation

The process of collecting and presenting data in a summarized format

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Data Aggregation

Data Encryption

A security method where information is encrypted and can only be accessed by using the correct encryption key

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What is Data Encryption?

Data Loss Prevention

It is a strategy for preventing individuals who should not have access, from accessing sensitive information.

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Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

Data Protection

Safeguarding important information from corruption, compromise, or loss.

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What is Data Protection?

Denial of Service Attack

An attempt to disrupt the normal traffic of a targeted server, service, or network by overwhelming the target with a flood of Internet traffic.

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Dictionary Attack

A brute force attack in which the attacker uses known dictionary words, phrases, or common passwords as their guesses to gain access to an unauthorized asset.

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Digital Footprint

The 'footprint' of the digital information that a user's online activity leaves behind.

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Digital Signature

A mathematical scheme for verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents

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Digital Signature

Encryption

The process of encoding information

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Encryption

End-of-Life Systems

When the manufacturer no longer supports end-of-life systems. This means that they are no longer being updated with security patches. As a result, these systems are more vulnerable to attack.

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End of Life software dangers

Endpoint

A device that exists at the end of a network connection

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Endpoint Detection and Response

Provides real-time continuous monitoring and the collection of endpoint data

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Endpoint security

The subsect of security that deals with the devices at the end of a network connection.

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Exploit

An attack on a computer system taking advantage of a particular vulnerability that the system offers to intruders. Exploit also refers to the act of successfully making such an attack.

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What is an expoit?

Extended Detection and Response

An extended detection and response is a new approach to endpoint threat detection and response, providing correlation and normalization of massive amounts of data.

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Firewall

Computer hardware or software security device helps protect the network.

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FrizFrog

A form of peer-to-peer (P2P) malware.

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Beware of Fritz Frog Malware

Gh0st

Gh0st RAT (Remote Access Terminal) is a trojan remote access tool used on Windows platforms, and has been used to hack into some of the most sensitive computer networks.

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GlobeImposter

A ransomware application that will encrypt files on a victim machine and demand payment to retrieve the information.

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Globeimposter 2.0 Ransomware

Green Team

They are the creators of the security system put themselves in the shoes of The Defender

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InfoSec Colour Team Structure

Group Authenticator

Used in addition to a sign-on authenticator, a Group Authenticator may be used to allow access to specific data or functions that may be shared by all members of a designated group.

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Group Authenticator

Hardening

The process of making a system or network more secure by reducing its vulnerability to attack.

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Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

A federal law that required the creation of national standards to protect sensitive patient health information

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Hermetic Wiper

A wiper malware that damages the master boot record making the device unable to boot the operating system.

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Honeypot

Computer or computer system intended to imitate the likely targets of cyberattacks

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What is a Honeypot

Identity Access Management

A sub-section of cybersecurity that deals with the access and identity check and control of the individual's privilege in the cloud.

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Identity check

The process of verifying the identity of a person or device.

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Identity Theft

Incident Response Rlan

Documented method of approaching and managing situations resulting from IT security incidents or breaches.

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Insider Threat

A threat to a company's data that is coming from someone within the organization, usually an employee or another company insider.

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What are insider threats?

Internet of Things

Refers to the ability of everyday objects to connect to the internet. Examples include connected appliances, smart home security systems, and televisions.

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Intrusion detection system

A system that allos organizations to instantly detect cyber attacks.

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IP Address

A unique address for a device connected to the internet or a local network.

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IT Explained: IP Address

KaraKurt

A threat actor that primarily uses VPN credentials to gain initial access to a victim's network.

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Ke3chang Group

The threat group is believed to be operating out of China.

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Ke3chang

Keylogger

A program that records the keystrokes on a computer

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Lapsus$

A group of cybercriminals who were known for their uncommon techniques and tendency to be dramatic

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Lockbit 2.0

A threat actor that uses any method available to compromise a network.

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Logging

Logging refers to collecting and storing data that can be used to identify and investigate cybersecurity incidents.

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Malvertising

The use of online advertising as a delivery method for malware.

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Malvertising

Malvertising

Malware

Malicious and intrusive software that is designed to damage and destroy endpoints and computer systems.

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What is malware?

Malwares

Mamba

Mamba is an example of HDD-encoding ransomware.

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Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

A type of cybersecurity attack that allows the attackers to eavesdrop on the communication between two targets

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Mespinoza

Mespinoza is a malicious software that encrypts data and blocks access to it unless a ransom is paid.

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Mespinoza Ransomware

Mirai

A malware that turns networked devices running Linux into remotely controlled bots.

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What is Mirai?

Mitigation

The steps for organizations and individuals take to address, eliminate, or minimize the risks posed by a cybersecurity threat.

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Monitoring

An essential cybersecurity process that helps organizations detect and respond to cybersecurity incidents.

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More_eggs

Malware that is used to create a backdoor in Windows-based operating systems.

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More_eggs is Back

Multi-Factor Authentication

Authentication method that requires the user to provide two or more verification factors to gain access.

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Nerbian Rat

A complex malware with low complexity obfuscation, that was designed to affect as many systems as possible.

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Netwalker

Netwalker is a ransomware that is performed through either vulnerability exploitation or spear phishing.

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Netwalker Ransomware

Nickel

A China-based threat actor who targets governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Often work together with Ke3chang, APT15, and APT25

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Night Sky

A malware that is designed to extort money by using blackmail.

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Open Source

A program's source code that is free and readily available to the public.

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Password Sniffing

A software application that scans and records passwords that are being used on a computer or network interface.

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Patch

A Patch is a computer software update made up of code inserted into the code of an existing executable program.

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Pentest

Pentest is short for penetration testing. It is a test of a computer network or system that is designed to look for security weaknesses so that they can be identified and remediated.

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What is a Pentest Service?

Personal Identifiable Information

Information that can be used by organizations on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context.

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Pharming

Pharming is an attack on network infrastructure that results in a user being redirected to an illegitimate website despite the user having entered the correct website address.

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Phishing

A cyber-attack that uses disguised email as deception attempting to trick the email recipient into believing that the message is something they want or need.

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Phobos

A ransomware virus that targets small and medium-sized organizations to encrypt their data and lock all files

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Phobos Ransomware

Principle of Least Privilege

The security guideline is that a user should only have access to the system, tools, and data that is required for them to do their work

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Privileged Access Management

Managing the access of elevated privileges to safeguard identities beyond that of regular users.

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Purple Team

The Purple team is the team that in a cybersecurity testing exercise, takes on the role of both the red team and the blue team.

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PYSA

Pysa is a variant of the strain known as Mespinoza and is Ransomware as a Service (RaaS) that the attackers sell access to.

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Qakbot

Qakbot is a multi-component malware threat.

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Ransomcloud

A strain of ransomware that infiltrates cloud-based systems such as Microsoft 365 and Google Workspace to encrypt emails.

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Ransomware

Ransomware is a type of malware that prevents you from using your computer or accessing certain computer files

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Ransomware

What is Ransomware

Ransomware-as-a-Service

Ransomware as a Service is a business model in which individuals or organizations pay ransomware developers to deploy their software to infiltrate a company.

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Red Team

In a cybersecurity testing exercise the red team is focused on penetration testing of different systems

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Remote Desktop Protocol

It provides a user the ability to connect to another user's computer over a network connection.

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What is RDP?

Response Planning and Testing

A plan for how an organization will respond to a cybersecurity incident.

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Risk Analytics

Examining each risk to the security of your organization’s information systems, devices, and data and prioritizing the potential threats.

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Proactive Services

Rootkit

A malicious software that allows an unauthorized user to have privileged access to a computer.

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Secure Shell Protocol

It provides a secure, encrypted communication between two untrusted hosts over an unsecured network.

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What is SSH?

Shadow IT

Shadow IT is when applications and infrastructure are managed and utilized without the knowledge of the company's IT department.

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What is Shadow IT?

Snatch

Snatch is a ransomware executable that forces a Windows machine to reboot into Safe Mode before beginning its encryption process.

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Social Engineering

Tricking people into divulging personal information or other confidential data via email or text

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What is Social Engineering

Sodinokibi

A ransomware program that encrypts files stored on a victim's computers and prevents people from accessing their files until they have paid a ransom.

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Software as a Service

Software as a Service is a business model in which companies and consumers access centrally hosted software applications over the internet. Normally under a 'pay for the resources' used model.

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Spear-Phishing

Spear-Phishing is a more targeted form of phishing, where an email is designed to look like it's from a person the recipient knows and trusts.

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What is Spear Phishing

Spyware

A malicious software designed to enter your computer, gather information about you, and forward it to a third party without your consent.

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Suncrypt

A ransomware that prevents victims from accessing files due to encryption of their files.

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Trojan

A Trojan is a type of malicious code or software that looks legitimate but can take control of your computer.

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Two-Factor Authentication

Two-factor authentication is the use of two different components to verify a user's identity. Also known as multi-factor authentication.

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User and Entity Behavior Analytics

A software used to detect, identify and control the possibility of Insider Threats. It is not foolproof, and even with the software insider threats remain a huge problem.

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Virtual Private Network

A technology that extends a private network and all its encryption, security, and functionality across a public network.

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Virus

A Virus is a type of malware that is aimed to infect and harm a file, a system, or a network.

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What are Computer Viruses?

Vulnerability

A vulnerability is a weakness, or flaw, in software, a system, or a process.

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Vulnerability Assessment

A vulnerability assessment is the process of identifying any risks or vulnerabilities in computer networks, systems, hardware, and applications, within an IT environment.

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Whaling

Highly targeted phishing attacks, masquerading as a legitimate email, that are aimed at senior executives.

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White Hat Hacker

White hat hack is an ethical Hacker who are cybersecurity specialists who test a system's security.

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White Team

In a cybersecurity testing exercise, the white team oversees the cyber defense competition and referees the event.

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Whitelist

Whitelist is a list containing allowed items such as passwords, spam emails, websites, applications, etc

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Related Resources

Whitelisting vs Blacklisting

Worm

A Worm is a malicious, self-replicating software program (also termed as 'malware') that affects the functions of software and hardware programs.

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Yellow Team

It is the team responsible for developing the security system of an organization.

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Zeppelin

A Zeppelin is a simple piece of code distributed as Ransomware as a Serice (RAAS)

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Zero-Day

Zero-Day refers to a recently discovered vulnerability, that is not yet known to software vendors, EDR, or antivirus companies, that hackers can exploit.

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